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Egypt a Mezopotámie

4. 11. 2007
Egypt a Mezopotámie

EGYPT
Stará říše: 2700 - 2000př.kr
Střední říše: 2000 - 1800 př kr.
Nová říše: 1600 - 1100 př kr.

Stará říše:
období prosperity, míru
Lokace: delta Nilu, ohraničeněné, omezené a izolované území, umožnilo kontinuální vývoj (narozdíl od Mezopotámie - městské státy v otevřeném terénu)

Architektura: Materiál kámen (M - hliněné cihly) Stavěly se hlavně sakrální stavby - chrámy: pošné, rovinné území ohraničené hradbami, nebo vysekané do skály - velikánské areály kde byly i příbytky kněží.
hrobky: pyramidy, zevnitř zdobené freskami, spočívalo tam bohatě zdobené tělo faraona ("helma" - klaft!) a dary (nápoje, jídlo - vše pro posmrtný život), fresky zobrazují jeho život a oblíbené činnosti
  • 1. pyramida: Džoserova - kol. r. 2600 v Sakkaře, stupňovitá (podobná Inkům), nejstarší stavba na světě
  • pyramidy v Gíze - Chufuova (Cheops)největší na svět, má již hladké stěny
                              - Rachefova
                              - Menkaureova (Mykerinova)
Sfingy: stály v blízkosti pyramid, hlava faraona, tělo lva, socha nebo stavba? (chodby, pokoje..) účel?Mastaby: nízké hrobky pro vysoce postavené osoby, bohatě malířsky a sochařsky vyzdobené.
Basferiéf: socha zadní stěnou ústící v zeď, vylíčená jako obraz.
Hypostyl: neboli architrávový zp.stavby, síň s přehrazenými sloupy, hlavice sloupů ve tvaru lotosového květu nebo rákosu/bambusu. např. v Karnaku

Sochařství: strnulé zpodobnění bez života a pohybu, schematické, nikoliv portrét, ale to co nám toho člověka připomíná.
Materiál: kámen, pískovec, vše polychromované
  • Sedící písař (Louvre)
  • Kněz Rahotep a jeho žena Nofreta
  • Vešepta - drobné figurky, téma třeba práce na poli

Malba: na stěnách hrobek a chrámů, měly náboženskou fci, proto byly popisné a nerealistické, schematické. Frontální zobrazení: Hlava z profilu, oko en face, ramena...atd.
používali hieratickou perspektivu: nejvýznamnější osoba - největší
enkaustika: barva + vosk

užité umění: dokonalé, luxusní a precizní předměty, nábytek v dnešní podobě, ale zdobenější (intarzovaný), vyráběli sklo, zrcadla,

Nová říše:
srdcem království Théby, Amenhotem IV provedl převrat, odklonil se od boha Amona k Atonovi.
Architektura:

  • Karnacký chrámový komplex: 2 ha, velice rozlehlý, tvořen hypostylem.Faraoni Nové ř. se nechávali pohřbívat do Údolí králů (u Nilu), hroby ale vykradeny, kromě Tutanchamónova.
Sochařství: s náboženskou i um. reforma, důsledný realismus, vše polychromované
  • socha Achnatona, Nefertiti a jejich dětí --> hlava Nefertiti: nejkrásnější ženská hlava v sochařství (aut. Thutmose)
Malířství: prožívá vrchol v N.Ř.

Inspirace Egyptem: Ivan Kafka (land art), Picasso (Sylvetta), Jan Konůpek

MEZOPOTÁMIE
je území v otevřeném terénu,meziříčí Eufratu a Tigris, proudí zde spolusta národů, složené z městdkých států - Ur, Uruk, Lagaš, Eridu

1. Sumérská éra: 3500 - 2350 př.Kr.
Sumerové (i Akkadové) jsou indoevropané
vznikají:
zikkuraty: 7mi stupňové stavby, v nejvyšším stupni svatyně zasvěcená bohu Mardukovi, kam smí jen kněží.
stély: ohlazený kámen s nápisem, materiál cihly z pálené hlíny, ve výjm. příp. glazované. např. Chamurappiho zákoník
pečetidla: fungovala jako podpis, ve formě klínového písma vyrývaného do hliněných destiček, dnes jich je hodně v London museum
další předměty: reliéfy, šperky, zbraně, keramika
  • Standarta z Uru: skříňka (vlajka NEE) tvořená mozaikami ze slonoviny, výjevy z bitev na lazuritovém podkladě, postavy se suknicemi z kůže, inkrustace: vkládání jiných materiálů
  • hliněný reliéf lagašského krále
  • hudební nástroje zdobené býčími hlavami, realisticky pojaté
  • socha býčka stojícího na pozlacených větvích (asi kvůli bohaté úrodě?)

2. Sumérsko - Akkadské obd.
  • Naramsinova stéla (Louvre): ukázka z boje
  • socha Ensiho Gudea: vládce Lagaše (správce) cca 2200 př Kr., z bronzu, disproporční, malinký, zvláštně sepnuté ruce, typická pokrývka hlavy, suknice popsána klínovým písmem (písmo Chetitů rozluštil Bedřich Hrozný)

3. Semitské obd.
Starobabylonská říše: přichází chetité, přebírají písmo a hl. městem se stává Babylon
  • Chamurappiho stéla: na černém dioritu, panovník na hlavě rohy - znak moci, nejstarší zákoník na světě (Louvre)
  • Bohyně čichající ke květině - basreliéf z Mary
  • Skupina tří kozorožců: zlaté masky, rohy spojené
  • Harfenistka (obliba hudebních nástrojů)

Novoasyrské obd.: hl. králové Ašurbanipal a              , hl. město Ninive
  • Palác v Chorsabadu: 7 st.př Kr., u jeho vchodu postavy z apokalypsy - tetramorfní postavy (orel, býk, lev, lidská hlava s rohy) - tzv. kompozitní postava
  • Lovecký výjev
  • Raněná lvice: reliéf, velmi realistický projev! (Londýn)
  • Odpočiněk v révovém loubí

Novobabylonská říše: 612 - 539 př.Kr. probíhá současně s novoegyptskou říší a antikou!
vyvrcholení kultury a umu, hl. městem je Babylon, velmi vyspělé město s hradbami; v této době zajetí židů za krále Nebukadnezara II a epos o Gilgamešovi (???)
  • Babylonská věž: zikkurat, inspirovala umělce (Breugel)
  • Mezopotámská brána: archetyp všech bran
  • Ištartina brána: z glazovaných cihel, zdobená zvěrnými motivy
  • Visuté zahrady Semiramidiny: z kamene, 1 terasa 12 metrů

Pojmy:
tella: kopec ze zeminy, která zbyla ze zikkuratů
nekropolis: hřbitov
inkrustace: aplikace jiných materiálů, např do oka sochy
teracotta: pálená hlína
kánon: schema, určitý způsob
 

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цена на бурение скважины под воду

(Donaldvga, 23. 6. 2021 13:22)

Здравствуйте друзья
Обустройство скважины с пластиковым кессоном Пластиковый кессон – самое оптимальное решение только что обустроенной скважины. Помимо того что, он отлично защищает Вашу скважину, обеспечивает ей необходимую герметичность. Пластик, как известно, не подвержен коррозии. К тому же, ни в каком дополнительном обслуживании пластиковый кессон не нуждается. В результате Вы имеете чистую питьевую воду в доме и на своем участке, используя для полива огорода. И пользоваться пластиковой конструкцией Вы можете в течение 50 лет, не опасаясь за работу Вашей скважины.
Монтаж пластикового кессона в только что обустроенную скважину состоит из этапов:
Вокруг обсадной трубы выкапывают котлован с запасом на 20-30 см больше диаметра пластикового кессона. Выравнивают дно.
Опускают кессон отверстием на обсадную трубу. Фиксируют трубу к корпусу кессона. Точность и аккуратность установки напрямую влияет на качество пользования и срок службы кессона.
К кессону через боковые отверстия в его стенке подсоединяют трубы водопровода и вывода на внешний поливочный кран, подсоединяется питающий кабель, всё аккуратно закрепляется крепежными болтами.
Обсадная труба должна быть обрезана до нужной высоты с учетом кессона. В скважину спускается насос через оголовок. Подключают все трубы, закрепляя болтами. на оголовке.
Устанавливают в кессоне гидроаккумулятор и системы автоматики, розетка со шнуром для подключения электрического кабеля.
Подводят трубы и электрический кабель к дому
Закрывают крышку кессона. Засыпают щели выкопанной землей. Литой пластиковый корпус кессона, а также его установка на глубине 2 м (это ниже промерзания грунта) защищает скважину и оборудование от замерзания в холодное время года.
Монтаж пластикового кессона и обустройство скважины завешено и можно пользоваться скважиной.
Отличия пластикового кессона от бетонного
Критерий

Кессон из бетонных колец

Пластиковый кессон

Особенности установки

При установке бетонных колец необходимо участие спецтехники.

Не требует участия спецтехники.

Срок службы

70-100 лет

Срок службы составляет 50 лет.

Герметичность

Не переносят влагу, необходима дополнительная герметизация.

Абсолютная герметичность

Прочность

Прочная и достаточно устойчивая конструкция. Такие кессоны не нужно укреплять. Под своей тяжестью они не сдвинуться даже под большим напором воды.

Кессоны оборудуют дополнительными ребрами жесткости, что снижает риск деформирования их стенок грунтом. А также дополнительно делают заливку бетоном.

Коррозия

Бетонная поверхность при намокании может стать рассадником грибков и паразитов.

Не подвергаются изменениям в течение 50 лет.

Всплывание

Не нуждаются в дополнительном укреплении.

Низкий показатель. Обычно такие конструкции необходимо «усаживать» на бетонную подушку.

Теплоизоляция

Нуждаются в утеплении.

Пластик – материал с низкой теплопроводностью. Утепляют только по необходимости, на территориях, где суровые зимы.

Распрекрасные кино

(Petersaunc, 19. 6. 2021 13:10)

https://kino-teatr.ua/articles/chto-v-kino-premeryi-nedeli-12-18-dekabrya-4801.phtml - Доступные фильмы онлайн

MY STORY

(Stephentog, 12. 6. 2021 21:46)

This is a story based off of one of my friends and I. He is my best friend in the entire world. I wouldnt trade what we have for anything.
Adam is my best friend. He is about 63 and is kind of tan considering its always cold here. Hes skinny but has a lot of muscle. He is the star player on our schools basketball and baseball teams. He is so super nice to everyone and is very smart. Hes in a lot of my classes. Hes kind of shy and quiet too.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/somatognosis3987657

Gray Rock

(LeroyDitte, 12. 6. 2021 14:31)

I just dont understand what happened? Jax spoke to Tyler as they rode in the front of the bus on their way back to gray rock. They continued the discussion as the boys complained about not getting to see the girls and such. The whole bus ride back was noisy. As the bus pulled into the parking lot and the cadets made their way back to the dorms Jax and Tyler made their way to the armory to check in their weapons. Jax spoke as they walked I know you dont agree with all the behind the scenes stuff he motioned with his fingers as if quoting. But I also have seen how you look and act around that cadet…whats his name…max.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/icnpiste7109297

Caravan of love

(Chesterkiz, 12. 6. 2021 8:46)

God I need a cigarette! I gasped as I collapsed, exhausted, at the top of the small mountain my team had just hiked up in the Lake District.
Youre supposed to be setting us a good example. Khalid laughed as he flopped down next to me quickly followed by his two schoolmates.
Fu…To Hell with that! I laughed, I deserve one after a walk like that.
Still laughing at me puffing and panting the boys whispered something, then Khalid turned to me and asked nervously; Do you really want a smoke?
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/siserary933043

Turning His Angel Into A Slut

(StephenSyday, 12. 6. 2021 3:31)

I tried so hard to remember what had gotten me here.Could it have happened that first night in the movie theatre?Could it have been when he was fucking me?Could it have been in the theatre today?These are all questions that went through my head.
The first night we went to the movies turned out to be a most memorable one.My Daddy wanted a blow job.He didnt care who was around, or if they saw, he only wanted to release and release he did.He unzipped his pants and pulled them down away from his cock then took his hand and wrapped it around the back of my neck.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/quidity5190842

Bright and Early

(GeorgeTix, 11. 6. 2021 22:36)

Anya lay on her bed, staring at the ceiling of her moderately-sized dorm room. Her digital alarm clocks LCD display burned a crisp 4:05 AM in the darkness. In two hours and a half she would have to go to class. Her music player was still operating, singing out Pink Floyds later, more ambient sounds. In her head, she went over all the homework she had and every project due withing the next three weeks. Everything was according to schedule. She continued to stare, thinking about how she would make the most of the first weekend her roommate, Tara, was gone.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/arthur324017668

First gay experience

(Jesusfliem, 11. 6. 2021 17:37)

My dad and I had always been close in what some people would call an odd way. My mom passed away when I was 3 so dad basically raised me by himself. Growing up we did everything together. Cuddled (sometimes he would be naked) and watched sports, went to games, he would give me baths, and some other stuff. But as I got older I noticed how dad would start to look at me more and more and for longer amounts of time.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/hodgepodge509388

Seductive Spin Class

(Williamflutt, 11. 6. 2021 4:08)

My 4 p.m. Timberlake spin class is about to start and all I can think about is the path my life has taken. I, Benjamin, a once bad-boy with a fetish for bees used to brothel hop and go to matinees alone to use only the most buttery of popcorn to relieve myself in times when my flesh light was stolen. It wasnt until I hit rock bottom half way through what I thought was flight of the bumblebees, when I realized I was masturbating to Akeelah and the Bee and tearing up along with Laurence Fishburne as Akeelah correctly spells logorrhea, when I decided to turn my life around. Trading matinees for daily spin classes, I have devoted my life to healthy eating, exercise and the LA lifestyle. Although my life is now back on track I cant help but have cravings for large breasts, dripping pussies, and holding my cock watching it blow with the force of one thousand fire hydrants – now thats some good shit.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/richterscales3652134

Job Opportunity

(CharlesCer, 10. 6. 2021 22:43)

This is my first story hoped you like reading it as much as I enjoyed writing it. I appreciate any compliments and/or tips. Tell me if you want me to continue this story. Thanks <3
Every day was different when working at the police station, but Carol was still taken aback by what she discovered when she walked into work. She was surprised when she walked into the main area to be greeted by the chief inspector Stan, who was standing next to a woman of early 30s, wearing a red latex outfit that showed an ample amount of her cleavage, which Carol could only guess was DD.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/shadowhunter4015311

El Torero

(Gregorywilla, 10. 6. 2021 16:15)

The air conditioner on my old Honda Prelude had died along with the radio, and now I was soaking in the last breaths of the cold air. Just before the temperature in that hot box became unbearable, a pale girl on a bicycle appeared, my salvation.
Jesus Tabitha, you said youd be home 2 hours ago. Im gonna need a jump now, I complained as I slammed my car door. Well, the skinny red head started, locking her pink mountain bike to the rack, that is what youre here for isnt it? I gave only an amiable smile as the double entendre wouldnt dawn on me for another moment. Well where the heck have you been?
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/tqmedius8963302

Different Dads, Different Daughters

(Donaldutten, 10. 6. 2021 9:53)

The next morning Ryan woke to the definite sensation of something warm, wet, and wrapped around his hard and throbbingcock. Peeking under the covers his curiosity was rewarded with the deliriously sexy sight of Patty sucking him while she was in a state of pleasure and happiness. Mind you, if hed taken the time to look, he could have figured it out by the up and down motion of the covers, or by the air movement that her bobbing created. But just that lustful sight was worth the effort of his exploration.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/peripteral5773988

Friendly Foursome

(AndrewHip, 10. 6. 2021 4:24)

Marcia and Ted were into their favorite bar on a Friday night, drinking and dancing to a local rock band.Two of their friends, Larry and Joan, walked in and joined them.The two couples drank well into the night and when the bar closed down, Marcia and Ted suggested that they continue the party at their house.
Ted turned on more rock music at the house and asked if Larry and Joan would like to smoke some weed to keep the party going.The four of them sat around and got high and eventually, the topic of conversation turned to sex.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/richterscales9135307

My Sexual Awakening

(Larrytit, 9. 6. 2021 23:28)

I am Mike, 16, I do the normal things a teenage guy does, video games, hanging out with friends, sports, no girl friend fanaticize about sex.And noI have not really been on a date yet. I guess you could classify me as a jock, just not the baseball, football or basketball type. I did like cross country and really liked the long distance runs we had to do.Most of the other guys on the team hated running anything over 6 or 8 miles. Me, I felt I was just getting started at 6. It didnt matter if it was spring or winter season. It was just great to be outside. So I was definitely in shape but not muscular.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/nemeanlion5123902

Henriet.Shom@gmx.com.tr

(Arthursauff, 9. 6. 2021 17:17)

My name is Rudy and my homie Max has this banging sister, her names Sarah. Shes about 411 with big ol jugs for breast and and a decent sized ass. When she really started catching my attention was when I got expelled and had to go to a charter school. Her parents had agreed for me to be dropped off at theyre house in the mornings so I can walk to school from there I spent about 1 hour there every morning. But sometimes Sarah would open the door for me. And shed always be in her pajamas without a bra and some tight shorts that showed half her ass.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/blya21703259

THE WHORE

(JeffreyFaf, 9. 6. 2021 8:31)

Now Open For Business
When I went to work on Brendas garden one morning there was a strange car in the driveway. This was a car I had seen somewhere before. I put it out of my mind and went about my chores weeding a flowerbed.As usual I was wearing my special ‘gardeners uniform, a pair of cut off jeans, no shirt just the shorts. I wore no underwear either because that was the way my ‘client wanted me.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/guardiang1428563

Summer Time

(AngelZotte, 9. 6. 2021 2:35)

Well as I was checking out the bank lines and waiting for Mark to return I reflected on just what had happened.I would have never imagined the feelings I had at that moment.I didnt know if I was gay or what but I couldnt deny that what me and Mark had done was probably the greatest thing I have ever done in my short life.As I sat there nursing my beer I relived the feeling of Marks cock in my mouth, hard yet velvety at the same time.And then the way Mark took me in the ass for the first time of my life.What ever happened next I knew that this would always be a time that I would remember for the rest of my life.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/sloven5905115

Jolene felt a burning sensation

(SergioNop, 8. 6. 2021 20:48)

Jolene felt a burning sensation directly above her left nipple.It was a quick heat followed by a dull throb.It moved across her chest and ended just above her right nipple.She knew better than to cry out, or make any noise more than a low moan.
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/pigeoncatcher2247273

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My wife's physical exam

(RonaldHow, 8. 6. 2021 4:58)

My wife was going to get her annual complete physical. She had never seen this doctor before. We just found him in the local listings.
We were both very excited as we waited in his exam room. My wife was terrified. She hated doctor exams. They are hugely embarrassing and humiliating and often painful for her.
I could see the fear on her face as we waited and waited.
After a forty-five minute wait because the doctor had some sort of emergency he had to deal with, the door opened and the doctor came in. The long wait and the anticipation made us both as wound up as people can be. Every nerve in my body felt electric. And then...
https://telegra.ph/My-wifes-physical-exam-06-07


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